Ki Hajar Dewantara Born in Yogyakarta on May 2 1889.Terlahir as Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat. He comes from the family palace of Yogyakarta. Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat, even at 40 years old by the count of the Year Caka, renamed Ki Hajar Dewantara. Since then, he no longer uses a knighthood in front of his name. This meant that he could freely close to the people, both physically and heart.
His life is really characterized the struggle and dedication to the interests of the nation. He finished elementary school in the ELS (Elementary School Holland) then could continue to STOVIA (Bumiputera medical school), but it was not until the end because of illness. Later he worked as a journalist at several newspapers including Sedyotomo, Midden Java, De Express, Oetoesan Indies, Kaoem Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer and Poesara. At the time, he was considered a reliable writer. His writings are very communicative, sharp and patriotic so as to evoke the spirit of anti-colonial readers.
Besides tenacious as a young reporter, he was also active in social and political organization. In 1908, he was active in the propaganda section Boedi Oetomo to promote awareness and inspire people of Indonesia at that time about the importance of unity in the state and nation.
Then, with Douwes Dekker (Dr. Danudirdja Setyabudhi) and dr. Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo, he founded Indische Partij (the first political party that wing nationalism Indonesia) on December 25, 1912 which aims to achieve an independent Indonesia.
They tried to register the organization to obtain legal status in the Dutch colonial government. But the Dutch government through the Governor-General Idenburg tried to block it with the presence of the party was refused registration on March 11, 1913. The reason for refusal was that the organization is considered to evoke a sense of nationalism and unity to move against the Dutch colonial government.
Then, after the refusal of registration of the legal entity status Indische Partij he helped form the Committee Bumipoetra in November 1913. The committee as well as a rival committee of the Committee of One Hundred Years of Independence Celebration of the Dutch. Boemipoetra Committee's critique of the Dutch government intends to celebrate one hundred years of its free Holland from French colonialism to withdraw money from the people of colonies to finance the festivities.
In connection with the celebration of the plan, he was criticized by Als Ik Eens article entitled Was Nederlander (If I'm A Netherlands) and Een maar voor Allen Allen Ook voor Een (One for All, but All for One Also). If I'm A Dutch writings published in newspapers owned by de Expres dr. Douwes Dekker, among others, reads:
"If I were a Dutchman, I will not hold the parties freedom in our own country who had robbed her freedom. Parallel to the way of thinking, is not only unfair, but it also does not deserve to have the inlander give donations to fund the celebration.
Thought for organizing the celebration alone insulting them and now we are scratching the bag anyway. Come forward and unseen insult it! If I'm a Dutchman. What offends me and my friends countrymen especially the fact that the nation is required to participate finance inlander a job that he himself had no interest at all. "
As a result of his essay, the Dutch government through the Governor-General Idenburg sentenced without trial, punishment internering (waste law) is a sentence withdesignate a place to stay that allowed for a person to reside. He was sentenced to imprisonment on Bangka Island.
Douwes Dekker and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo compatriots feel unfairly treated. They also publish a pitched defend Soewardi. But the Dutch believed that writing and inciting the people to revolt against the colonial GOI. As a result, they also suspended internering. Douwes Dekker dumped in Kupang and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo exiled to the island of Banda.
But they wanted banished to the Netherlands because there they can learn to do many things from the remote areas. Eventually they were allowed into the Netherlands since August 1913 as part of the punishment.
The opportunity was used to explore the issues of education and teaching, so Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat managed to obtain a Certificate Europeesche.Then he returned to his homeland in 1918. In the homeland he devotes attention in the field of education as part of the means of struggle for independence.
After his return from exile, with his comrades, he founded a college national patterned, Nationaal Instituut Onderwijs Tamansiswa (National University Tamansiswa) on July 3, 1922. Education is strongly emphasized education to students a sense of nationhood that they love the nation and homeland and fight for independence.
Not a few hurdles faced in building State Students. The Dutch colonial government issued Ordinance seeks his way with Wild School on October 1, 1932. But with persistence to fight for their rights, so the ordinance was later revoked.
In the midst of seriousness devoted Tamansiswa in education, he also remained diligent in writing. But the theme of his writing turned from political overtones to the national vision of education and culture. His writing hundreds of pieces. Through the writings that he successfully laid the foundation of national education for Indonesia.
Meanwhile, in the days of the Japanese Occupation, the activities in politics and education continues. When the Japanese government established the People's Power Center (the Son) in 1943, Ki Hajar sat as one of the leaders in addition to Ir. Sukarno, Drs. Muhammad Hatta and K.H. Mas Mansur.
After the time kemedekaan, Ki beat Dewantara had served as Minister of Education and Culture of the first. Name Ki Hajar Dewantara not only enshrined as a hero figure and education (the father of National Education) the date of his birth May 2 was made a National Education, but it is also designated as a National Hero Movement through Presidential decree No.305 of 1959, dated 28 November 1959 . Other awards he received was the title of Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Gajah Mada in 1957.
Two years after obtaining the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa, he died on 28 April 1959 in Yogyakarta and is buried there.
Then by the successor State college student, founded Kirti Griya Dewantara Museum, Yogyakarta, to preserve the values of Ki Hajar Dewantara fighting spirit. In the museum there are objects or works as the founder of Ki Hajar Tamansiswa and performance in national life. Museum collections in the form of paper or concepts and critical treatises and data correspondence Ki Hajar during life as a journalist, educator, humanist, and as an artist have been recorded on microfilm and laminated for the help the National Archives.
This nation needs to inherit the fruit of his thoughts on the purpose of education is to promote the nation as a whole without distinction of religion, ethnicity, race, culture, customs, habits, economic status, social status, etc., and must be based on the values of human freedom.
Birthday, celebrated as National Education Day. Are known teachings tut wuri handayani (behind giving encouragement), ing madya mangun karsa (in the middle of creating opportunities for initiative), ing ngarsa sungtulada (in front of an example).