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Senin, 25 Maret 2013

Upacara Adat ( tribal ceremonies )

Upacara Adat Di bali ( tribal ceremonies in bali )


1. The Tribal Ceremonies Ngaben



 Ngaben is a cremation performed Hindus in Bali, the ceremony was conducted for the ancestral spirits menyucian deceased toward the final resting place of burial by doing.
In man has several elements, and all of it driven by the soul / spirit given by the Creator. When the man died, which left only the body roughly only, while the spirit is still there and continues until the end of time eternal. At that time cremation ceremony occurs as a process of purification when the spirit leaves the body rough.
The word itself has a sense of cremation ashes all stock or goal lead on the release of the last of human life. In Hinduism Brahma has some meaning other than as a creator god Brahma is also believed to have meaning as the God of Fire. So the cremation ceremony itself is a process of spiritual purification by fire using fire to be able to go back to the creator, an incarnation of Lord Brahma fire could burn all the filth attached to the bodies and spirits of people who have is

Cremation ceremony is considered very important for Hindus in Bali, cremation ceremony is perujudan because of the respect and affection of the people who left, also about the social status of the family and the deceased. With cremation, the family can free spirit / ghost of deeds deeds that have been done the world and deliver them to heaven immortal reincarnated again and again in different forms.
Ngaben done with a series of ceremonies, consisting of various forms of offerings by not forgetting stamped symbols like other rituals that are performed Hindus in Bali. Cremation ceremony in his usual massive dilalukan, this all takes a long, laborious and also cost quite a bit and could lead to cremation is often done in a long time after death.

At the present time the Hindu community in Bali often mass cremation / joint, for which there are less costly cost, where the dead body was temporarily interred in advance to meet the new costs carried on, but for the people and families who are able to do cremation ceremony as soon as possible, for the time being remains buried at home, waiting for a good time. There was less good assumption if the storage remains too long in the house, because the spirit of the deceased to be confused and unsettled, he felt being alive between 2 natural and always wanted to get released.
Implementation Ngaben itself must first consult with the pastor to menetapkankan when a good day to do the ceremony. While waiting for a good day to be set, usually the family and assisted the gang busy doing preparation where the body (Bade / coffin) and a bull-shaped replica made of bamboo, wood, colored paper, which will for the crematorium.
Early in harinyasaatupacara is implemented, the entire keluargadanmasyarakat will gather to prepare the ceremony. Before the ceremony held prior bodies cleaned / washed, baths pelaksaaan process led by a priest or someone of caste Bramana.
Once the process is complete baths, corpse makeup dressed in traditional Balinese clothes, and all family members gathered to pay their respects and prayers accompanied the consecrated souls may find peace and are in a better place.
Bodies that have been washed and dressed in the clothes placed in "Bade / coffin" and on the stretcher in a gang, all members of the family and society berbarisdidepan "Bade / coffin". During the way to the ceremony Ngabentersebut when any intersection or junction, Bade / casket will be rotated around three times, it is believed that the spirits are confused and do not come back again, in the release of the body no sobs, no good for the body, as if not willing to deliver the kepergiannya.Arak procession accompanied by the sound of gamelan departure corpse, chanting suci.Pada the front and back Bade / stretcher coffin that contained a white cloth that has meaning as a bridge for the spirit to be able to get to the place of origin.


After arriving at the location or the burning grave that had been prepared, the corpse in the input / put on / in the "Replica shaped ox" that had been prepared by first priest or a caste Brahmin and chant prayers and ceremonies Ngaben implemented, then "Cow" burned to ashes. Ashes from cremation is inserted into the ivory coconuts and then in larungkan / dihayutkan into the sea or rivers are considered sacred.
From the above it can be concluded that pemamaparan cremation is a Balinese cremation ceremony at a sacred and exalted time, the ceremony was an expression of respect which is intended for people who have died. The ceremony is always performed in the large and festive, not all Hindus in Bali to implement because it requires no small cost. All that comes from the creator of his day will come back again and all it has to be believed and ihklaskan. Man was born and later died were all closely associated with charitable deeds for the world.

Biografi Kapten Peiere Andreas Tendean Versi Bahasa Inggris ( Biography of Captain Andreas Tendean Peiere English Version )

Name: Captain Peiere Andreas Tendean
Born: Jakarta, February 21, 1939
Religion: Protestant
General Education:
- SD in Magelang
- Junior B
Military education: ATEKAD

Military Career:
- Participated in the operation Sapta Marga in North Sumatra. He was sworn in as Second Lieutenant in 1962 Czi
- Danton Yon Zipur 2/Dam Bukit Barisan II
- Education Intelligence in 1963
- Had infiltrated Malaysia Dwikora time while serving DIPIAD
- 965 was appointed as the Minister of Defence, Adjutant / Kasab Gen. AH Nasution when the rank is Second Lieutenant, then rose to First Lieutenant.
Signs Respect: Heroes of the Revolution
Died: Jakarta, October 1, 1965
Buried: Kalibata Heroes Cemetery in Jakarta

 Posthumous Tendean Captain Pierre was born on February 21, 1939 in Jakarta. He is one of the victims of the events of September 30th Movement and an Indonesian national hero.
Son of DR. AL Tendean from Minahasa, his mother was a French bleed named Cornel ME. Pierre is the second of three brothers. The brother and sister all women, so that as the only son of his parents he was a beacon of hope.
After Pierre graduated from elementary school in Magelang, continue to the junior part B and then to the high school section in Semarang. After graduating from high school suggested that his parents Pierre entered the Faculty of Medicine. However, Pierre had to have their own choice, like masuh National Military Academy, and aspired to become a military officer.
Pierre entered ATEKAD Force VI in London in 1958 and was sworn in as Second Lieutenant Czi 1962. After experiencing the task, among others, as Danton Yon Zipur 2/Dam II and following the Education Intelligence in 1963 and had been infiltrated into Malaysia while serving time Dwikora DIPIAD, then in 1965 was appointed as the Minister of Defence, Adjutant / Kasab Gen. AH Nasution with the rank of First Lieutenant.
In the office of Adjutant Gen. A.H. Nasution is Pierre Tendean fall as a shield against any attempt G 30 S / PKI to kidnap / kill Gen. AH Nasution.
At hordes G 30 S / PKI still and tried to kidnap Mr. Nas on the early morning of October 1, 1965, Pierre, who was sleeping in the pavilion's house Nas, soon woke up, heard a noise in the house because Nas pack. When he came out, he was captured by the kidnappers gang by Idris and Jahurup Pratu. When Pierre explained that he was the Adjutant Nasution, then the mob that he misheard Nas pack. Then he tied her hands and taken by truck to the Crocodile Hole.
In crocodile pit with Brigadier General Pierre besama Sutoyo entered into the house which is located near the old well. After brutally tortured by members of the G 30 S / PKI based on the final turn was murdered and put into a crocodile pit with other Army leaders.

Biografi Letjend Anumerta S parman Versi Bahasa Inggris ( Biography Letjend Posthumous S Parman English Version)

Name: Lieutenant General Posthumous S. Parman
Born: Wonosobo, Central Java, August 4, 1918
Religion: Islam
Last Public Education: School of Medicine (did not graduate)
Other Education: Kenpei Kasya Butai
Army Education: Military Police School, USA.
Work Experience: Bureau Kenpeitai
Military Career:
- In 1964, Assistant Minister / Commander of the Army (Men / Army Commander)
- In 1959, Indonesian military attache in London
- The staff at the Ministry of Defence
- March 1950, Chief of Staff, G
- December 1949, Chief of Staff of the Military Governor of Jakarta.
- In 1945, Chief of Staff of the Military Police Headquarters (PT) in Yogyakarta
- People's Security Army (TKR)
Signs Respect: Heroes of the Revolution
Died: Jakarta, October 1, 1965
Buried: Kalibata Heroes Cemetery in Jakarta

 Lt.. Posthumous Siswondo Parman was born in Wonosobo, Central Java, August 4, 1918. He is one of the seven heroes of the revolution and PKI depicting victims. Men born in Wonosobo, Central Java is an intelligence officer, so much to know about the secret activities of the PKI that is why he is one among the officers who rejected the plan to form the Fifth Force PKI consisting of workers and peasants. Rejection makes hostility and murder victims PKI. Who had attended general education level is elementary school, middle school, and the School of Medicine. But before completing his doctor, the Japanese army had occupied the Republic that a medical degree was not until he has made.
After not being able to continue medical school, he had worked at the Bureau Kenpeitai. There he was suspected of Japan so arrested, but was soon released. After that, he instead was sent to Japan for education on Kenpei Kasya Butai. Upon his return to his homeland again to work on Kempeitai Bureau.Beginning his career in the military starts by following the People's Security Army (TKR) is an Indonesian Army was formed after the proclamation of independence. At the end of bulanDesember, in 1945, he was appointed Chief of Staff of the Military Police Headquarters (PT) in Yogyakarta.
During the Dutch Military Aggression II, he also fought with a guerrilla war. In December 1949 he was assigned as Chief of Staff of the Military Governor of Jakarta. One success when it was unpacked secret Army movement Ratu Adil (APRA), which will conduct its operations in Jakarta under the leadership Westerling. Subsequently, in March 1950, he was appointed Chief of Staff G. And a year later sent to the United States for his education at the Military Police School.
Upon his return from the United States, he was assigned to the Ministry of Defence for a while and then was appointed Military Attache RI in London in 1959. Next five years, ie in 1964, he was assigned as Assistant Minister / Commander of the Army (Men / Army Commander) with the rank of Major General. While serving Assistant Minister / Commander of the Army (Men / Army Commander), the effect of PKI is also emerging in Indonesia. The Communist Party is to feel close to the President and most of the people had been affected. However, as an intelligence officer, S. Parman previously had a lotknow the secret activities of the Communist Party. So when the Communist Party proposed that the workers and peasants armed or called by the Fifth Force. He along with most other Army officers rejected the proposal containing the hidden intent. On the basis of that then himself despised by the PKI.
So the rebellion launched by PKI dated 30 September 1965, he became one of the targets to be kidnapped and killed. And on October 1, 1965 morning, Lieutenant. TNI Posthumous S. Parman along with six other officers that Gen.. Posthumous TNI Achmad Yani; Lieutenant. Posthumous TNI Suprapto; Lieutenant. Posthumous TNI M.T. Haryono; Major General. Posthumous TNI D.I. Panjaitan; Major General. Posthumous TNI Sutoyo S, and Capt. Pierre Tendean Czi Posthumous successful military kidnapped then murdered and his body was blindly inserted into the old well in the Crocodile Hole without humanely.
Crocodile Hole WellsS. Parman died as heroes of the revolution to defend Pancasila. Together with six other officers he was buried in the Garden of Eating Heroes Kalibata. Previous rank of Major General was then raised one level to Lieutenant General in recognition of his services.
Miracle Pancasila MonumentTo commemorate the heroes, the New Order government ditetapkanlah October 1 each year as well as Pancasila Miracle Day as a national holiday. And in the Crocodile Hole, East Jakarta, in front of the old well where the body was found, built monument to the background is a statue of the seven heroes of the revolution. Miracle Tugu monument called Pancasila.

Biografi Jendral Ahmad Yani Versi Bahasa Inggris ( Biography of General Ahmad Yani English Version )

Name: Army General Achmad Yani Posthumous
Born: Jenar, Purworejo, June 19, 1922
Died: Jakarta, October 1, 1965
Buried: Kalibata Heroes Cemetery
Religion: Islam
Father: Sarjo bin Suharyo
Mother: Murtini

Formal Education:
- HIS (at S D) Bogor, graduated in 1935
- MULO (at S M P) class B AFD. Bogor, graduated in 1938
- AMS (at S M U) section B AFD. Jakarta, stopped in 1940
Military education:
- Military Education at the Department of Military Topography in Malang
- Education Heiho in Magelang
- Defenders of the Homeland Army (MAP) in Bogor
- Command and General Staff College at Fort Leaven Worth, Kansas, USA, in 1955
- Special Warfare Course in UK, 1956

His last position: Chief Secretary of the Army (Men / Army Commander) since 1962
Medal of Honor:
- Class II RI Stars

GENERAL ANTI COMMUNISTGeneral Achmad Yani known as a soldier who is always at odds with the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). While serving Minister / Commander of the Army (Men / Army Commander) or what is now the Chief of Staff of the Army since 1962, he refused the desire to establish a Fifth Force PKI consisting of workers and peasants.
Therefore, the slander that a number of the army has been working with a foreign country to topple President Sukarno, the PKI through September Thirty Movement (G 30 / S) made him one of the targets to be kidnapped and killed in seven other Army officials.
The events that occurred on October 1, 1965 morning was finally killed six of the seven officers of the Army High previously planned PKI. Crocodile Hole, the location where the well where to hide the bodies of the Pahlwawan Revolution was a silent witness to the cruelty communist.
General who is very close to the President, this is one of the right hand and trust the Proclaimers. He was very much in love and devoted to the Bung Karno. Because of the love and loyalty, he even once said, "Who would dare step on the shadow of Bung Karno, must first step over my dead body." In fact there is the issue of sound, that Achmad Yani has been prepared by the Bung Karno as his successor as president. But he was so close to the first President of Indonesia's Achmad Yani Nasakom disagree with the concept of Sukarno. Issues and principles that ultimately make PKI more hate against him.
Achmad Yani was born in Jenar, Purworejo on June 19, 1922, was the son of Sarjo bin Suharyo (father), and Murtini (mother). Begin a formal education in his (primary school level) Bogor, which was completed in 1935. Then he went to school MULO (First Medium School level) class B AFD. Bogor. From there he graduated in 1938, then he went to AMS (High School level) section B AFD. Jakarta. This school lived only until grade two, in connection with the militia that was announced by the Government of the Dutch East Indies.
He then followed the military education at the Department of Military Topography in Malang and more intensively again in Bogor. From there he began his military career with the rank of Sergeant. Then after 1942, ie after the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, he also attended Heiho in Magelang and then entered the army Defenders of the Homeland (MAP) in Bogor.
Various achievements have ever achieved in the war for independence, among others managed to disarm the Japanese in Magelang. After the People's Security Army (TKR) was formed, he was appointed Commander of TKR Navan. Furthermore, his military career was the faster uphill.
Other accomplishments achieved when the first Dutch military aggression occurs. His forces operating in the area Pingit successfully resisted Dutch attack in the area. So when the second Dutch military aggression occurred, he held the position as commander entrusted Wehrkreise II, which covers the area of ​​defense Kedu.
After Indonesia gained recognition of sovereignty, he was assigned to destroy DI / TII (Darul Islam / Islamic Army of Indonesia) are wreaking havoc in Central Java. When it established the Banteng Raiders were given special training. As a result, troops DI / TII also successfully ditumpasnya.
After crushing DI / TII, he was drawn to the Army Staff. In 1955, he was schooled at the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leaven Worth, Kansas, USA for nine months. And in 1956, he also attended for two months at the Special Warfare Course in England.
In 1958 when PRRI rebellion occurred in West Sumatra, Ahmad Yani who was promoted to the rank of Colonel Commander Operations August 17, to lead the insurgency PRRI. He also managed to quell the uprising. Since then his name even more brilliant. Until the year 1962, the time he held the rank of Lieutenant-General appointed Men / replace Army Commander General AH Nasution, who was elevated to the Coordinating Minister for Defense and Security / Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces (Minister of Defence / Kasab).
During his Men / Army Commander that unfortunate events happen. General who famously anti the communist doctrine on October 1, 1965 at 4:35 pm, when the dawn, was abducted and shot by the PKI in front of her bedroom and into the autumn. In search led by Suharto (former President) who was then still serving as Kostrad, her body was found buried in the Crocodile Hole in one old well along with six other bodies. Achmad Yani body was buried at the Heroes Cemetery, he died as a hero of the Revolution. Previously promoted Lieutenant-General raised one level as a tribute to General.
He was killed for defending the sanctity of Elementary and Philosophy of the State, Pancasila, the communists diverted want to try. To commemorate the heroes, then at Crocodile Hole, near the old well where the body was found, built monument with statues of the seven heroes backdrop that six officers Revolution Height: Jend. Posthumous TNI Achmad Yani, Lieutenant. Posthumous TNI Suprapto, Lieutenant. Posthumous S.Parman military, Lieutenant. Posthumous TNI M.T. Haryono, Major General. Posthumous TNI D.I. Panjaitan, Major General. Posthumous TNI Sutoyo S, and plus one First Officer Captain Pierre Tendean Czi military posthumously. Miracle Tugu monument called Pancasila.
October 1, 1965 event then has delivered an order in the post-independence history of this republic. Order which was then known as the New Order was set on October 1 each year as well as Pancasila Miracle Day as a national holiday. Determination was based on events that occurred on the day and the month, there have been an undermining efforts Pancasila, but failed.
Later, after the fall of the new order and the order was replaced by the so-called Reform Order, the anniversary of Pancasila's Miracle seems to be forgotten. Proven October 1 is no longer designated as a national holiday as before.
In a speech Bung Karno known as "Jasmerah" father of the nation was called so that you should never forget history. More explicitly mentioned, that great nation is a nation that remembers and appreciates its history. Should that's contained in this nation, especially its leaders.

Biografi Ki Hajar Dewantara Versi Bahasa Inggris (Biography Ki Hajar Dewantara English Version)

Ki Hajar Dewantara Born in Yogyakarta on May 2 1889.Terlahir as Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat. He comes from the family palace of Yogyakarta. Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat, even at 40 years old by the count of the Year Caka, renamed Ki Hajar Dewantara. Since then, he no longer uses a knighthood in front of his name. This meant that he could freely close to the people, both physically and heart.
His life is really characterized the struggle and dedication to the interests of the nation. He finished elementary school in the ELS (Elementary School Holland) then could continue to STOVIA (Bumiputera medical school), but it was not until the end because of illness. Later he worked as a journalist at several newspapers including Sedyotomo, Midden Java, De Express, Oetoesan Indies, Kaoem Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer and Poesara. At the time, he was considered a reliable writer. His writings are very communicative, sharp and patriotic so as to evoke the spirit of anti-colonial readers.

Besides tenacious as a young reporter, he was also active in social and political organization. In 1908, he was active in the propaganda section Boedi Oetomo to promote awareness and inspire people of Indonesia at that time about the importance of unity in the state and nation.

Then, with Douwes Dekker (Dr. Danudirdja Setyabudhi) and dr. Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo, he founded Indische Partij (the first political party that wing nationalism Indonesia) on December 25, 1912 which aims to achieve an independent Indonesia.

They tried to register the organization to obtain legal status in the Dutch colonial government. But the Dutch government through the Governor-General Idenburg tried to block it with the presence of the party was refused registration on March 11, 1913. The reason for refusal was that the organization is considered to evoke a sense of nationalism and unity to move against the Dutch colonial government.
Then, after the refusal of registration of the legal entity status Indische Partij he helped form the Committee Bumipoetra in November 1913. The committee as well as a rival committee of the Committee of One Hundred Years of Independence Celebration of the Dutch. Boemipoetra Committee's critique of the Dutch government intends to celebrate one hundred years of its free Holland from French colonialism to withdraw money from the people of colonies to finance the festivities.
In connection with the celebration of the plan, he was criticized by Als Ik Eens article entitled Was Nederlander (If I'm A Netherlands) and Een maar voor Allen Allen Ook voor Een (One for All, but All for One Also). If I'm A Dutch writings published in newspapers owned by de Expres dr. Douwes Dekker, among others, reads:
"If I were a Dutchman, I will not hold the parties freedom in our own country who had robbed her freedom. Parallel to the way of thinking, is not only unfair, but it also does not deserve to have the inlander give donations to fund the celebration.
Thought for organizing the celebration alone insulting them and now we are scratching the bag anyway. Come forward and unseen insult it! If I'm a Dutchman. What offends me and my friends countrymen especially the fact that the nation is required to participate finance inlander a job that he himself had no interest at all. "
As a result of his essay, the Dutch government through the Governor-General Idenburg sentenced without trial, punishment internering (waste law) is a sentence withdesignate a place to stay that allowed for a person to reside. He was sentenced to imprisonment on Bangka Island.
Douwes Dekker and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo compatriots feel unfairly treated. They also publish a pitched defend Soewardi. But the Dutch believed that writing and inciting the people to revolt against the colonial GOI. As a result, they also suspended internering. Douwes Dekker dumped in Kupang and Cipto Mangoenkoesoemo exiled to the island of Banda.
But they wanted banished to the Netherlands because there they can learn to do many things from the remote areas. Eventually they were allowed into the Netherlands since August 1913 as part of the punishment.
The opportunity was used to explore the issues of education and teaching, so Raden Mas Soewardi Soeryaningrat managed to obtain a Certificate Europeesche.Then he returned to his homeland in 1918. In the homeland he devotes attention in the field of education as part of the means of struggle for independence.
After his return from exile, with his comrades, he founded a college national patterned, Nationaal Instituut Onderwijs Tamansiswa (National University Tamansiswa) on July 3, 1922. Education is strongly emphasized education to students a sense of nationhood that they love the nation and homeland and fight for independence.
Not a few hurdles faced in building State Students. The Dutch colonial government issued Ordinance seeks his way with Wild School on October 1, 1932. But with persistence to fight for their rights, so the ordinance was later revoked.
In the midst of seriousness devoted Tamansiswa in education, he also remained diligent in writing. But the theme of his writing turned from political overtones to the national vision of education and culture. His writing hundreds of pieces. Through the writings that he successfully laid the foundation of national education for Indonesia.
Meanwhile, in the days of the Japanese Occupation, the activities in politics and education continues. When the Japanese government established the People's Power Center (the Son) in 1943, Ki Hajar sat as one of the leaders in addition to Ir. Sukarno, Drs. Muhammad Hatta and K.H. Mas Mansur.
After the time kemedekaan, Ki beat Dewantara had served as Minister of Education and Culture of the first. Name Ki Hajar Dewantara not only enshrined as a hero figure and education (the father of National Education) the date of his birth May 2 was made a National Education, but it is also designated as a National Hero Movement through Presidential decree No.305 of 1959, dated 28 November 1959 . Other awards he received was the title of Doctor Honoris Causa from the University of Gajah Mada in 1957.
Two years after obtaining the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa, he died on 28 April 1959 in Yogyakarta and is buried there.
Then by the successor State college student, founded Kirti Griya Dewantara Museum, Yogyakarta, to preserve the values ​​of Ki Hajar Dewantara fighting spirit. In the museum there are objects or works as the founder of Ki Hajar Tamansiswa and performance in national life. Museum collections in the form of paper or concepts and critical treatises and data correspondence Ki Hajar during life as a journalist, educator, humanist, and as an artist have been recorded on microfilm and laminated for the help the National Archives.
This nation needs to inherit the fruit of his thoughts on the purpose of education is to promote the nation as a whole without distinction of religion, ethnicity, race, culture, customs, habits, economic status, social status, etc., and must be based on the values ​​of human freedom.
Birthday, celebrated as National Education Day. Are known teachings
tut wuri handayani (behind giving encouragement), ing madya mangun karsa (in the middle of creating opportunities for initiative), ing ngarsa sungtulada (in front of an example).

Biografi Kapitan Pattimura Versi Bahasa Inggris ( Biography Kapitan Pattimura English Version )

Thank you hopefully biography Biography and Profiles. Benefit for you to get to know more of the world leaders, Pattimura, real name Thomas Matulessy (born in Hualoy, Hualoy, South Ceram, Maluku, June 8, 1783 - died in Ambon, Maluku, December 16, 1817 at the age of 34 years) . He was the son of Frank Matulesi with Fransina Silahoi. As for the government's version Pattimura biography was first published, M Sapija wrote, "That the noble hero Pattimura classified as derivatives and from Nusa Ina (Seram). Dad named Antoni Mattulessy he was the son of Kasimiliali Pattimura Mattulessy. The latter is the son of Sahulau king. Sahulau is the name of the country that is located in a bay in the South Seram ".
From the history of the written Pattimura M Sapija, his lieutenant was giving the Netherlands. They are not. According to historian Mansyur Suryanegara, ancestor of this nation, from the point of history and anthropology, is homo religiosa (being religious). Their belief in something beyond the power of their minds, give rise to interpretations that are difficult to digest modern ratio. Therefore, their social behavior is controlled natural forces that they fear.
Their souls are united with the forces of nature, magic-magic special a person. Miracle was later accepted as a noble and sacred event. If he sticks to a person, that person is a symbol of their strength. He is considered a leader has charisma. The properties were attached and proceeds down through the generations. Although then they have embraced, but the genealogical / lineage / descent is an instance leader or lieutenant. From this fact as "lieutenant" inherent in Pattimura it began.
Before you take the fight to the VOC he had a career in the military as a former British army sergeant. The word "Moluccas" comes from the Arabic Al-Malik Al-Mulk or meaning Land of Kings. remember at that time the number of royal
In 1816 the British handed over power to the Dutch and later the Dutch menetrapkan monopoly policy, a tax on land (landrente), displacement of population and voyage Hongi (Hongi Tochten), and ignore the Treaty of London I include in article 11 contains a provision that the British Resident in Ambon must negotiate before removal koprs Ambon and in agreement with the Governor also stated clearly that if the British government ended up in the Maluku Ambon the soldiers should be released in terms of the right to choose to enter military service out of the new government or military service, but in Pratiknya pemindahn military service is enforced Coming back colonial Dutch in 1817 got a tough challenge from the people.
This is due to political, economic, and social relations are bad for two centuries. Maluku People finally rose up arms under the leadership of Kapitan Pattimura So when the war broke out against the Dutch colonialists in 1817, Kings Patih, the Kapitan, Indigenous Elders and people lifting as leaders and warlords as experienced and possesses sfat knight (kabaressi). As a warlord, Kapitan Pattimura war strategizing with aides.
As a leader he successfully coordinated Patih Kings in carrying out the activities of government, lead people, manage education, providing food and building fortifications. Widely recognized authority in leadership by the king and the duke of ordinary people. In the struggle against the Dutch he also unity to the kingdom of Ternate and Tidore, kings in Bali, Sulawesi and Java. Pattimura a national scale war that the Dutch faced with the power of a large and powerful military to send its own admiral Buykes, one Commissioner General to face Patimura.
Great battles against the Dutch army inland and sea coordinated Kapitan Pattimura penglimanya assisted by, among others Melchior Kesaulya, Anthoni Rebhok, Philip Latumahina and Ulupaha. The battle that destroyed the Dutch troops listed as seizure Duurstede Dutch fort, the battle on the beach Waisisil and jasirah Hatawano, Ouw-Ullath, Jasirah Hitu Ambon and Seram Island South. Pattimura war can only be stopped by pitting politics, deceit and earth scorched by the Dutch. The hero eventually captured and put an end to his service on the gallows on December 16, 1817 in the city of Ambon. For service and sacrifice, the Kapitan Pattimura confirmed as "FREEDOM STRUGGLE HEROES" by the government of the Republic of Indonesia ...... National Hero of Indonesia. Belief in one God infinitely just and civilized humanity unity of Indonesia, democracy guided by the wisdom of representative deliberation wisdom in freedom for all people of Indonesia.
Statue Pattimura
Straighten history Kapitan Ahmad `Pattimura 'Lussy
Muslim leaders are actually named Ahmad Lussy, but he is better known by the identical Mattulessy Thomas Christians. Here's one example of the minor deislamisasi and betrayal on the history of terrorism in Maluku and / or Indonesia in general.
(I told you all (that) I was a big banyan andevery big banyan banyan will fall but others will replace(So) I say unto you (that) I was a rocklarge boulders and any other stones will tumble but willreplace it).
Utterances are full of poetic imagery were spoken by Kapitan Ahmad Lussy or known as Pattimura, hero of the Moluccas. At that time, December 16, 1817, has been entwined rope hanging around his neck. From his remarks, it appears that Ahmad Lussy a patriot with big hearts. He was not afraid of death. Steadfast in character, personality and self-esteem in the face of the enemy. Ahmad Lussy also seemed optimistic. But the courage and patriotism Pattimura was distorted by the government's version of history writing. M Sapija, the first historian to write a book about Pattimura, deciphering speech at the end of death by
"Pattimura-old Pattimura be destroyed, but later Pattimura-Pattimurayoung will rise "
But according to M Nour Tawainella, also a historian, Sapija interpretation is not fit for the color of Indonesian grammar are too modern and different from the cultural context of the time. Elsewhere, Sapija interpret,
"Goodbye brothers", or "Goodbye castings-Castings"
This also refuted Tawainella. Therefore, such talk is not typical Pattimura patriotic and optimistic. The highlight of the controversy about who Pattimura is any mention of the names Ahmad Lussy Thomas Mattulessy, from the name of a Muslim to become a Christian. Amazingly, more people believe in the Christian predicates, because Maluku is often identified with Christianity. that is the history of the debate until now.

Biografi Jenderal Sudirman Versi Bahasa Inggris ( Biography of General Sudirman English Version )

Thank you hopefully biography Biography and Profiles. Benefit for you to know more figures in the world, General Sudirman is one of the most popular figures in the history of the struggle of the Indonesian nation. He was the first commander of the military, religious leaders, educators, Muhammadiyah leader and a pioneer of guerrilla warfare in Indonesia. General Sudirman also one of the five-star general in Indonesia besides General AH Nasution and General Suharto. He was born in Bodas Karangjati, Purbalingga, Central Java, on January 24, 1916 and died in Magelang, Central Java, January 29, 1950 at the age of 34 years of tuberculosis and is buried at the Heroes Cemetery in semaki State Kusuma, Yogyakarta.
General Sudirman was born and raised in a modest family. His father, KARSID Kartowirodji, was a worker at Sugar Factory Kalibagor, Banyumas, and his mother, Siyem, bleary-eyed offspring Wedana Apex. Soedirman since the age of 8 months was appointed as a child by R. Tjokrosoenaryo, an assistant district officer Apex is still a brother of Siyem. General Sudirman acquire formal education from the School Garden Student. Then he went on to HIK (school teacher), Muhammadiyah Surakarta but not until the end. Sudirman was also active at the moment Scouts organization Hizbul Wathan. After that he became a teacher at his school in Cilacap Muhammadiyah.
The knowledge gained from the Japanese military through education. After completing his education at the MAP, he became a battalion commander in Kroya, Central Java. Later he became the commander of Division V / Banyumas after TKR formed, and eventually was elected Commander of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Indonesia (Commander TKR). Sudirman was known to have a private firm on principle and conviction, he always put the interests of many people and nation above personal interests, even the interests of his own health. His personality is written in a book by Tjokropranolo, bodyguard during the guerrilla, as someone who is always consistent and consistent in defending the interests of the homeland, the nation and the state. During the Japanese occupation, the Sudirman been a member of the People's Food Board and a member of the House of Representatives residency of Banyumas. In this time he set up a cooperative to help the people from starvation.
After World War II, the Japanese surrendered unconditionally to the Allies. Sukarno used the moment to declare the independence of Indonesia. Sudirman and his troops fought in Banyumas, Central Java against the Japanese and captured weapons and ammunition. At that time the Japanese position is still strong in Indonesia. MAP Soedirman organizing his battalion into a regiment based in Banyumas, to become the army of the Republic of Indonesia which then played a major role in the war Indonesian National Revolution.
After the People's Security Army (TKR) was formed, he was subsequently appointed as Commander of Division V / Banyumas with the rank of Colonel. And through TKR Conference on 12 November 1945, was elected Soedirman TKR Commander / Chief of the Armed Forces of Indonesia. Later he began to suffer from tuberculosis, but he still falls within the guerrilla war against the forces who want to master the Dutch NICA Indonesia after the Japanese surrender.
The first great war is a war led Soedirman Palagan Ambarawa against the British and Dutch NICA which lasts from November to December 1945. In December 1945, forces led by Sudirman TKR fought against the British army in Ambarawa. And on December 12, 1945, Sudirman launched simultaneous attacks against all top notch British Ambarawa. Famous battle which lasted for five days to end with the withdrawal of British troops to Semarang. The war ended on December 16, 1945. After victories in the Sudirman Ambarawa Theater, on December 18, 1945 he was appointed as General by President Soekarno. Soedirman gained the rank of General is not through the military academy or other higher education, but because of his achievements.
General Sudirman still plunge into battle during the second Dutch military aggression in the capital Yogyakarta. When the capital was moved to Yogyakarta, Indonesia as Jakarta has mastered Belanda.Soedirman led his troops to defend Yogyakarta from the Dutch attack was on December 19, 1948. In opposition, the health condition of General Sudirman was in a very weak state of tuberculosis he suffered for a long time. Yogyakarta was then controlled by the Dutch, although Indonesia was ruled by the army after General Offensive March 1, 1949. At that time, President Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta and several cabinet members were also arrested by the Dutch army. Because of the precarious situation, Soedirman crutches left with his troops and return to guerrilla warfare.
He moved around for seven months from one forest to another forest, and from mountain to mountain in sickness almost without treatment and medical care. Soedirman home of guerrilla because his health condition does not allow her to lead the Armed Forces directly. After that just a figure Soedirman planners behind the scenes in a guerrilla campaign against the Dutch. After the Dutch surrender as the Indonesian archipelago States in the 1949 Round Table Conference in The Hague, General Sudirman back to Jakarta with President Sukarno and Vice President Mohammad Hatta. At the date January 29, 1950, General Sudirman died in Magelang, Central Java illness suffered severe tuberculosis. He was buried in the Heroes Cemetery in semaki State Kusuma, Yogyakarta. He was named the Defender of Independence hero. In 1997 he was awarded posthumously to Major General of the five-star rank possessed only by a few generals in Indonesia until now.