Minggu, 11 Desember 2011

Development of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia( Perkembangan kerajaan islam di Indonesia versi bahasa inggris)

Development of Islamic kingdoms in Indonesia( Perkembangan kerajaan islam di Indonesia versi bahasa inggris)

To increase your understanding of the Islamic kingdom which flourished in Indonesia from its inception, the geographical location and its development in the political, economic, social and cultural can you see in the following description of the material.

1. Kingdom of Samudra Pasai
Kingdom of Samudra Pasai in history as the first Islamic kingdom.
Regarding the early years of establishment and the kingdom is not known with certainty. However, in the opinion of Prof.. A. Hasymy, based on an old manuscript entitled Izhharul Haq
written by Al-Tashi said that before developing Pasai Ocean, has been
no central Islamic rule in Peureula (Perlak) in the mid-ninth century.
Perlak developed as a center of trade, but after the unstable security
then many traders who shift their activities to other places to Pasai namely,
Perlak eventually decline.

With the setback Perlak, then a man by a local ruler named
Angry Silu of Ocean who managed to unite the region and Pasai Ocean.
And the two areas was used as a kingdom by the name of Pasai Ocean.
Kingdom of Pasai Ocean is located in the District Lhokseumauwe, North Aceh, which
bordering the Strait of Malacca.

1. Kingdom of Pasai Ocean developed in the 13th century located in the Century
Lhokseumauwe District, North Aceh.
2. The existence of the kingdom of Samudra Pasai evidenced by the
a. Note Marcopolo of Venetia.
b. Note Ibn Batulah from Morocco.
c. Gravestones Sultan Malik al-Saleh.
d. Princess Pasai sepulcher.
3. The role of Pasai Ocean in the field of trade is with a strategic location, the Ocean Pasai developing as a royal
have hegemony over the maritime and ports are important in the Coastal
West coast of Sumatra as well developed as Bandar Transito.
4. Values
​​that can be drawn from the existence of the kingdom of Samudra Pasai
is the value of openness and togetherness and respect for each class
community and leadership principles that are close to the people.
5. The kings who reigned in Ocean Pasai among others
Sultan Malik al-Saleh (1285-1297).
Sultan Muhammad (al-Tahir Malik I).
Sultan Ahmad (al-Tahir Malik II).
Zaenal Sultan Abidin (Malik al-Tahir III).

2.Kerajaan Demak
Demak in the past as an area known by the name Bintoro
or Gelagahwangi which is an area duchy under the rule of Majapahit.
Demak Duchy was ruled by Raden Patah a descendant of King
UB V (Bhre Kertabumi) is the king of Majapahit.
With the development of Islam in Demak, then Demak can develop as a city
trade and the center spread of Islam in Java. It is used as an opportunity for
Demak to get away with attacks on the Majapahit.
Having destroyed the Majapahit Demak stands as the first Islamic kingdom in the island
Java with the king Raden Patah. Demak kingdom is geographically located in
Central Java with the central government in the area at the mouth of the river Demak Bintoro,
surrounded by an extensive marsh area in the waters of the Sea Moriah. (Now Sea Moriah
already is irrigated lowland rivers Lusi).
Bintoro as the center of the kingdom lies between Bergola Demak and Jepara, where
Bergola is an important port during the course of the Mataram kingdom
(House of dynasty), while the Jepara eventually developed as a port of
important for the kingdom of Demak.

As explained in the description of the kingdom of Demak material, that the area
western tip of Java island and Sunda Kelapa Bantam can be seized by Demak, in
Under the leadership of Fatahillah. For that the area under the authority of Demak.
After Islamicised by Fatahillah Bantam Bantam then handed over to local
Hasannudin named his son, while his own Fatahillah settled in Cirebon,
and focus on her religion.
Given the Hasannudin Banten, then put the basics Hasannudin
Bantam royal government and set himself up as the first king,
reigned from 1552 to 1570.
Location situated in the territory of the kingdom of Banten Banten now, namely in the eastern Strait
Sunda so very busy area for strategic and national trade.
In the reign of Hasannudin, Banten may break away from the kingdom
Demak, so the Banten can develop quite rapidly in various fields
of life. For more details, see the description of material about the political life of Banten
the following.
Genealogy of the Kings Banten
1. Hasannudin Sultan (1552 - 1570)

2. Panembahan Joseph (1570 - 1580)

3. Maulana Muhammad (1580 - 1596)

4. Abulmufakir (1596 - 1640)

5. Abumaali Achmad (1640 - 1651)

6. Sultan Abdul Fatah / Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa (1651 - 1682)

7. Abdulnasar Abdulkahar / Sultan Haji (1682 - 1687)

4. Kingdom of Mataram
The name of the kingdom of Mataram would have you ever heard before and memories
You must be fixed on the Sanjaya dynasty of Mataram kingdom and dynasty in the time
Mataram kingdom which will be discussed in this module, has nothing to do with
kingdom of Mataram Hindu-Buddhist era. Probably just a coincidence the same name.
And by chance they are in locations that are not much different from the Java
South Central.
At the beginning of its development is an area of
​​Mataram kingdom ruled duchy
by Ki Gede Pamanahan. The area was given by Prince Hadiwijaya (Jake
Tingkir) is king Pajang to Ki Gede Pamanahan for his services to help overcome
Demak civil war in the background of the emergence of the kingdom Pajang.
Ki Gede Pamanahan has a son named Sutawijaya which also serve the
Display the command of the king as the king's guards. After Ki Gede Pamanahan
died in 1575, then succeeded him as duke Sutawijaya in Kota Gede
After administration Hadiwijaya in Pajang ended, then the return of civil war
between Prince Benowo son Aryan Hadiwijaya with Pangiri, Regent Demak
is a descendant of Prince Trenggono.
As a result of civil war, so many controlled areas Pajang
break away, so it is this which encourages Prince Benowo ask for help
to Sutawijaya.
The assistance Sutawijaya, it can be overcome civil war and because
the inability to voluntarily surrender his throne Prince Benowo
to Sutawijaya. So ended the kingdom Pajang and as
comes the sequel Mataram kingdom.
Location of the Mataram kingdom in Central Java with its center in the South
Cede the city around the city of Yogyakarta today.
From the explanation, if you already understand? If you already know, for
find out more about the development of the kingdom of Mataram, then check out the description
The following material.
1.latar behind the founding of the kingdom of Mataram!
Establishment of the kingdom of Mataram can not be separated from the civil war in Pajang. Because
after the death of Prince Hadiwijaya, Pajang king, then there is the struggle
power between Prince Benowo son Hadiwijaya with Aryan descent Pangiri
Prince Trenggono. To deal with Arya Pangiri, Prince Benowo request
assistance to Sutawijaya, so Sutawijaya overcame struggles
these powers. For his services voluntarily surrender Prince Benowo
Display throne to Sutawijaya so Sutawijaya establish the kingdom of Mataram.
2.Tindakan-action as king Sultan Agung of Mataram!
-Subduing areas to expand the territory break away
his power.
-Unifying the areas power through marriage.
-Perform attacks on VOC in Batavia in 1628 and 1629.
Advancing economic-Mataram.
-Integrate cultural elements of Hinduism, Buddhism and Islam.
3. The causes of the destruction of the kingdom of Mataram!
-The absence of capable kings such as Sultan Agung.
-The number of areas that escape.
The VOC-intervention against the government of Mataram.
-The existence of divisive politics through agreements Gianti VOC 1755 and Salatiga

5. Kingdom of Gowa - Tallo
Figure 2.10 is a map of South Sulawesi. In South Sulawesi in the 16th century
there are a few of them Gowa kingdom, Tallo, Bone, Sopeng, Wajo and Sidenreng.
To find the location of these kingdoms, please you observe the picture 2:10
One is the kingdom of Gowa and Tallo form an alliance in
1528, thus giving birth to a kingdom known as the kingdom
Macassar. The name is actually the capital of the Makasar kingdom of Gowa and now
still used as the name of the provincial capital of South Sulawesi.
Geographically, the area of
​​South Sulawesi has a very strategic position, because
on cruise lines (trade Archipelago). Even the area of
​​Napier became
central stopover good traders from Indonesia and East
originating from western Indonesia.
With such a strategic position then develop into Macassar kingdom kingdom
large and in charge of the trade routes of the archipelago. So to add
your understanding of the development of the kingdom of Macassar, please refer to
The following description of the material.

The spread of Islam in South Sulawesi conducted by Datuk Rebandang of Sumatra,
so in the 17th century Islam is growing rapidly in South Sulawesi, even
Napier king had embraced Islam.
Napier's first king who converted to Islam is Karaeng Matoaya (King
Gowa) who holds the reign of Sultan Alaudin Makasar years 1593 - 1639 and
assisted by Manrabia Daeng (King Tallo) as the title of Sultan Abdullah Mangkubumi.

Since the reign of Sultan Alaudin developing as a royal kingdom of Macassar
maritime and thrive in the reign of Malekul Said (1639 -
Furthermore Makasar kingdom peaked during the reign of greatness
Hasannudin Sultan (1653-1669). During his reign succeeded Napier
expand the territory that is by mastering the fertile areas
as well as areas that can support trading purposes Napier. Expansion
Napier area is up to the West Nusa Tenggara.

Sultan Hasannudin known as the king who is very anti to foreign domination. By
therefore he opposed the presence and the monopoly imposed by the VOC that has been
ruling in Ambon. For that the relationship between Batavia (VOC's center of power in the Indies
East) and Ambon hindered by the presence of the kingdom of Macassar.
Under these conditions the arising conflict between Sultan Hasannudin with
VOC, and even lead to war. The battle occurred in the area
In the battle against the VOC, the Sultan himself led his troops Hasannudin
for the Dutch troops devastated in the Moluccas. As a result the Dutch position
increasingly desperate. His courage was the Sultan Hasannudin Netherlands
give him a nickname as the Roosters from the East.

Dutch efforts to end the war with Makassar is by doing
-sheep political race between the kingdom of Bone Napier (Napier's territory).
Bone is the king of Aru Palaka who feel invaded by Napier asked for assistance to
VOCs to escape from the power of Napier. As a result Aru Palaka
allied with the VOC to destroy Napier.
As a result of the alliance could eventually master the Dutch capital of the kingdom
Macassar. And the kingdom was forced to admit defeat and Napier
Bongaya agreement signed in 1667 that it would be so detrimental
Napier kingdom.
The contents of the agreement Bongaya include:
a. VOC obtain a monopoly of trade in Makassar.
b. The Netherlands can be set up fort in Napier.
c. Napier must let go of its colonies such areas and islands Bone
outside of Napier.
d. Aru Palaka recognized as king of Bone.
Although the agreement has been held, but the resistance against the Dutch fixed Napier
in progress. Even the replacement of the Sultan Hasannudin Mapasomba (son
Hasannudin) continue the resistance against the Dutch.
To deal with the resistance of the people of Makassar, the Dutch troops deployed
on a large scale. Finally able to completely control the kingdom of the Netherlands
Napier, and Napier suffered destruction.

1. 3 factors that make Napier developed as a center
-It is located strategically in the path of international trade.
-Has a good harbor.
-The fall of Malacca into the hands of the Portuguese in 1511.
2. 2 the impact of the agreement Bongaya of the monarchy in politics
-VOC ruling in Napier.
Napier-regional power increasingly narrow because many areas
break away.
3. As a result of the defeat against the Netherlands Napier include:
-The role of Napier as the ruler of shipping and trade in Indonesia
East end.
Napier-Dutch can master the means to master the trade in
Eastern Indonesia.

6.Kerajaan Ternate - Tidore
Kingdom of Ternate and Tidore is located in the Maluku islands. Maluku is kepualuan
which lies between the island of Sulawesi and Irian Island. The number of islands and hundreds of
is a mountainous island and the fertile terrain.
Political Life
Maluku islands known as the largest producer of spices in the world.
Spices are a major commodity in the world of shipping and
trade in the 15th century - 17. For the benefit of trading mastery rempahrempah
such, it encourages the formation of alliances in the areas of Maluku
North called Ulilima and Ulisiwa.
Ulilima means community led by the five brothers of Ternate
Ternate, Obi, Bacan, Seram and Ambon. While Ulisiwa is a partnership of nine
brothers consisting of Tidore, Makayan, Jailolo and islands located in the
Halmahera island to West Irian.

Between the alliance and Ulisiwa Ulilima occurred competition. Competition is
more pronounced after the arrival of the West to the Maluku Islands.
The first western nation to come is that eventually allied with the Portuguese
Ternate in 1512. Since then the Portuguese alliance allowed
set up a fortress in Ternate.
The next Western nations who came to the Moluccas are the Spaniards, while the
Spain itself hostile to the Portuguese. Therefore the presence of Spain in the Moluccas,
then he allied dengwn Tidore.
Due to the competition between the alliance with Tidore, Ternate more
sharp, and even lead to war between the two involving
Spanish and Portuguese. In the war can be defeated by Ternate, Tidore
assisted by the Portuguese.
Spanish and Portuguese involvement in wars between Ternate and Tidore, basically
stems from the competition to find the center of the spice world since the beginning
exploration of the ocean, so as a result the Pope to intervene to help
resolve such disputes.
Pope's efforts to resolve the dispute between the Spanish and Portuguese
is to issue a decree entitled Inter caetera Devinae, which means
Divine decision. The decree was first signed in 1494 in Thordessilas
or better known as the Treaty Thordessilas. And then after the
problems in the Moluccas then return the Pope issued a decree that both the
signed by the Portuguese and Spanish at Saragossa in 1528 or referred to
Saragosa Agreement.

1. the entry of Islam in the Moluccas!
Maluku islands as is a fertile area known as
largest producer of spices. For that as a result, many pedagangpedagang
who came to the Moluccas to buy these spices. Between
these traders are traders who have embraced
Islam thus indirectly Islam entered the Moluccas through trade
and then Islam spread by the preachers one of them from Java.
2. Portuguese efforts in order to master the trade
in the Moluccas.
Carry-Portuguese politics pitting between Ternate and Tidore.
-Portuguese fort established in the Moluccas (Maluku instill in his power).
Do-Portuguese trade monopoly in the Moluccas.
3. result of the agreement for the people of Maluku Saragossa!
-Ruled by the Portuguese Moluccas.
-Trade monopolized by the Portuguese Moluccas.
-Rakyau Maluku experienced misery.
-The people took up arms against the Portuguese Moluccas.

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